Para-cycling Road was the forerunner of the sport in the Paralympic Games programme. Since the 1984 edition, co-hosted by the cities of Stoke Mandeville, England, and New York, participants test their performance in time trials and resistance events.
Road events are held for both men and women, and for all functional categories. There are events for athletes with visual impairment, identified by the letter B (Blind), that use tandem bikes, with a rider without disabilities acting as pilot - similar to what happens in Athletics - and for amputee athletes, whose categories are shown by the letter C and who have equipment with prosthetics or specific adaptations to change gears or to brake, for example.
Cyclists with cerebral palsy also compete, using tricycles - the letter T indicates events in this category - with two wheels behind. As these cyclists have greater impairment of motor functions and balance, tricycles provide them greater safety and allow them to have a better performance. There are also events with handcycles, which are propelled with the hands, for people with tetra and paraplegia, and identified by the letter H.
The dynamics of the events are similar to those of Olympic Cycling - the minimum and maximum distances for the events vary according to the category. The sport also has its rules determined by the International Cycling Union (UCI, in French), but the organization is a responsibility of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).
The most recent discipline of Paralympic Cycling, track competition was introduced only in the Atlanta 1996 Games. Like in the Olympic competition, it is divided into time trial, pursuit and sprint events.
One of the bikes used in track events is the tandem, with two seats. It is used by athletes with visual impairment or low vision, identified by the letter B (Blind). As in Athletics events, there is an athlete guide who, in the case of cycling, is called the pilot and occupies the front seat.
Amputees also participate in track events, divided into five categories. The adaption of bicycles can vary from brakes and gear to prosthetics and orthotics designed for the competition - such as those that hold the handlebars. These categories are identified by the letter C.
The race format varies according to the event, but the dynamics are similar to Olympic track events. Paralympic cycling also has its rules determined by the International Cycling Union (UCI, in French), but the organization is a responsibility of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC).
Cycling (track) | Rio 2016 Paralympic Games par IPCmedia